How does the Internet work?

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If the only thing you know about the Internet is that there is a lot of information and that you can find/watch/buy anything there, this article may come in handy to you.

This article will help you to learn some things about Internet – how it works and how you see it on your screen.

Step No.1

You get a device – desktop, laptop, tablet, smartphone or something like this. First it works in off-line mode, i.e. you cannot enter in the World Wide Web. In order to do it you need to set up the connection via the Internet service provider. They can give you an access via satellite, cable or even(!) phone line (sounds crazy, but some providers still offer this type of connection). By the way, you if connect to a neighbor’s Wi-Fi – your neighbor isn’t considered to be your provider. Although, if you call him this way, there is a chance that he will be pleased because of it 🙂 And then he will set a password…

When your computer gets the Internetaccess, you can finally surf.

  • The Internet, also known as World Wide Web or just Web, represents the computer networks around the world integrated with each other, designed for data storage and transmission.
     во всем мире, предназначенные для хранения и передачи данных.

 

The World Wide Web (generally known as WWW) and other data-transmission systems work on the basis of the Internet. According to recent reports there are 3.4 billion Internet users.

  Step No.2

In order to visit any website, you need to use the browser. At the moment there is a big variety of browsers, the most popular of them are Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari and Opera.

статистика интернет браузеров

Step No.3

Well, if you are an owner of Windows OS the first thing you may want to do is to open Internet Explorer or Edge and download another browser. To do this, you need to enter the domain name (i.e. the address) of the desired website to the address bar. For example, google.com.ua/chrome or mozilla.org/ru/firefox.

Step No.4

If you want to visit any website, you will need the help of DNS-servers.

  • DNS stands for Domain name system

DNS server is something like a telephone directory – you request the domain name from it, in response it tells your computer the IP-address of the requested page. It makes web-surfing much more convenient, because it is easier to remember a certain letter address (such as vertex-academy.com) in comparison to a sequence of digits, for example 78.46.145.62.

  • IP address (Internet Protocol Address) is the unique address for the node in the computer network.

Each device in the network has a unique IP address. It consists of four groups of decimal numbers from 0 to 255, which are separated by points. For example, 175.0.217.21.

question-mark-295272_640What is the maximum number of digits in the IP address?

Step No.5

The DNS server returns the unique number to your computer, now the browser can connect to the server that hosts your desired site.

Step No.6

When the web-server receives the request from your browser, it displays the requested page to you. So many words, and it happens in the blink of an eye 🙂

A few words about the domains

The domain name serves for identification and addressing of the network nodes and web resources, which are located at them in a palatable form. At the moment there are more than 250 million registered domains and if you want to create a website with a nice, short name – it’s likely that it is already used by someone else. It sounds sadly, but it becomes a bit brighter if you imagine just for a minute what it will be for our future generations :).

The fully qualified domain name consists of the domain name itself and of the names of all domains in which it is included, they are separated by points.
For example, “mail.google.com” denotes the third level domain “mail”, which belongs to the second-level domain “google”, which belongs to the top-level domain “com”, which in its turn belongs to the unnamed root domain “.”. Here is the domain that Jack built 🙂

  • TLD (Top-level domain)is the highest level after the root level.
  • Root domain is the domain of the highest level. This domain is serviced by the root DNS-servers, which are located in different parts of the world. It is displayed with the point in the end of the address, although the point is often dropped when it comes to typing in.

There are many top-level domains, but it is easy to understand their purpose with the help of their names, for example:

.com (commercial) – for commercial organizations

.org (organization) – for non-profit organizations

.net (networks) – for network structures

.int (international) – for international organizations

.de (Deutschland) – for Germany

.ua (Ukraine) – for Ukraine

I hope that now you are not afraid of all these terms, and if you have some additional questions, please ask in the comments or come to us to get acquainted 🙂


 

exclamation-28996_640 If you’ve read this far, and the question "What is the maximum number of digits in the IP address?" remains unanswered – it’s a high time to put the cards on the table :). The maximum number is 12. Do you remember, that the IP address consists of four groups of numbers from 0 to 255? It means that the shortest IP-address will be 1.0.0.0, and the longest – 255.255.255.255.

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Vertex Academy

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